The anticipated El Nino rains have become a topic of great interest and concern in recent years. As climate change continues to alter weather patterns worldwide, the El Nino Southern Oscillation phenomenon has gained attention due to its potential impacts on global climate extremes and ecosystem impacts(Mu et al., 2021). The El Nino-Southern Oscillation is a natural climate pattern characterized by oceanic and atmospheric changes in the tropical Pacific region, particularly sea surface temperature anomalies(Kim et al., 2022). These anomalies can result in the occurrence of El Nino events, which are characterized by warmer than usual sea surface temperatures, while La Nina events are associated with cooler than usual sea surface temperatures. Recent studies have shown that the frequency and intensity of El Nino and La Nina events have been changing over time(Yudianto et al., 2021). This has raised concerns about the potential consequences of these events, including their influence on precipitation patterns.
The El Nino phenomenon has been known to cause increased rainfall in certain regions, while La Nina periods often result in drier conditions(Pinto et al., 2021). For example, in southern Brazil, El Nino years tend to bring above-normal rainfall, whereas La Nina years are associated with dry periods. This has significant implications for sectors such as agriculture, where accurate weather predictions are crucial for planning and mitigating potential risks. Accurate predictions of El Nino-induced rainfall can help farmers make informed decisions regarding crop planting and irrigation schedules, enabling them to optimize yields while minimizing the risk of crop failure and financial losses. Furthermore, the consequences of weather prediction errors during El Nino and La Nina periods can have far-reaching effects on the global agriculture sector(Yudianto et al., 2021). These phenomena can result in extreme fluctuations in rainfall levels, which can disrupt the timing and intensity of the flood pulse in regions such as the Amazon basin(Costa et al., 2022). During El Nino events, the dry season becomes more intense, with less precipitation than normal. This can lead to drought conditions, affecting not only agricultural production but also water availability for human consumption and other economic activities. Moreover, the impacts of El Nino-induced rainfall extend beyond the agricultural sector. For example, increased rainfall during El Nino events can result in higher levels of runoff and river discharge, increasing the risk of flooding in coastal regions.